Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend Global Experts Meeting on Infectious Diseases Tokyo,Japan.

Day 2 :

Conference Series Infectious Diseases Meet 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Hiroshi Ohrui                                   photo
Biography:

Hiroshi Ohrui received Ph D. Degree (1971) from The University of Tokyo. He Joined Riken(1966) and moved to Tohoku University (1981). He worked for Dr. J. J. Fox at Sloan-KetteringInstitute for Cancer Research(1972-1973) and Dr. J. G. Moffatt at Syntex Research(1973-1974). He received several awards including The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry Award(2004), and Japan Academy Prize (2010). His research interests cover organic synthesis, chemical biology  and chiral discrimination. 

 

Abstract:

4’-C-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2’-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) has attracted much attention due to its extremely excellent anti-HIV activity,  for example; 1. prevent the emergence of resistant HIV mutants,  2. over 400 times more active than AZT and several orders of magnitude more active than the other clinical reverse-transcriptase inhibitor y 2’, 3’-dideoxy-nucleoside drugs,  3. very low toxic,  4. very long acting,  5. possible use for prophylaxis, and so on.
EFdA is now under clinical investigation by Merck &  Co.  as MK-8591.
In the beginning, my general  idea for the development  of  anti-viral modified nucleosides will be presented, and then the development of EFdA will be discussed and the clinical results by Merck ill be also presented. For the design of the modified nucleoside which could solve the problems that the clinical drugs have (1. emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutants, 2. adverse effect by drugs, 3. necessity of  taking  quite a few amount of drugs), the following working hypotheses were proposed . They are (1) the way to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutants, (2) the way to decrease the toxicity of modified nucleosides, (3) the way to provide the modified nucleoside with stability to both enzymatic and acidic glycolysis for long acting.

4’-C-substituted-2’-deoxy nucleoside (4’SdN) was designed to meet the hypotheses (1), (3), and the additional  modification of 4’SdN was performed to meet the hypothesis (2).

The details of the hypotheses and the reasons of the design of 4’SdN will be discussed.

To prevent the deamination of adenine base by adenosine deaminase,  fluorine atom was introduced at the 2-position of adenine base.

Finally, EFdA , modified at the two position (2 and 4’) of the physiologic 2’-deoxyadenosine and has  extremely excellent anti-HIV activity,  was  successfully developed.

 

 

  • Health Care - Infectious Diseases

Session Introduction

Sunil Palchaudhuri

WSU School of Medicine, USA

Title: Global spread of mobile DNA elements
Speaker
Biography:

Dr Sunil Palchaudhuri,Ph.D,D.Sc  is Professor of Immunology and Microbiology at the WSU School of Medicine, USA for 36 years after his Postdoctoral training In Canada (NRC Scholarship) and NIH Post doctoral fellowship at NYU School of Medicine with Professor WK Maas.  He was awarded the New York State Irma T Hirschl Career Scientist Award in 1975-1980 and was Fogarty Senior International Fellow, 1984 to work on an epidemic in Kolkata caused by an antibiotic resistant strain of Shigella dysenteriae. He was Fulbright visiting Professor, in 1993-1994 in School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata with Mother Teresa to develop an early detection technique for children leprosy. Reviewer in USA NIH Committees. J. Bact. Editorial board. Published extensively in international journals of repute - J. Mol. Biol., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, J. Bact., etc. Currently preparing manuscripts on antibiotic resistance crisis, transposons and bacterial diseases.

 

Abstract:

Professor J Lederberg’s F plasmid is evolved in his laboratory strain of E. coli K-12 in 1952. In 1960 antibiotic resistance crisis is reported in a renowned hospital in Tokyo. Ampicillin is not helping the patients with Shigellosis. Extensive research showed that presence of self-transmissible antiobiotic resistance plasmid R in S. flexnerii is responsible for such crisis. Question arises, where does this R plasmid come from (R100, R6-5, R1)? Comparison between R6-5 with Dr. Lederberg’s E. coli K-12 fertility factor F may provide an answer. These two plasmids are self-transmissble and they differ only by 9 base pairs in the repA region containing dnaA gene which is directly involved in initiation of DNA replication. Above all, F plasmid carries two types of mobile DNA elements (Insertion sequences or IS elements IS2, IS3 and transposon Tn1000). The Type II F-prime KLF5 carrying E. coli K12 chromosomal operons is formed by a non-homologous recombination via Tn1000 (gamma-delta). Professor W. K. Maas and his associates B Low and Sunil Palchaudhuri have analysed an unstable F-prime factor KLF5 isolated from the unstable Hfr Ra-2. Such instability is therefore inherited but it is not desirable in Eukaryotes. Unfortunately, emergence of new diseases may result from such spread of transposons. In in vitro gene cloning experiments we have already used antibiotic resistance plasmid R6-5 and a cloning vector pBR322, both carrying Tn1000. It is likely that we have already spread Tn1000 globally and therefore we should think of a measure of how to contain this spread.

 

  • Infection, Immunity and Inflammation
Speaker
Biography:

Magdalena Radwanska obtained her PhD from the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. She has an extensive scientific expertise in molecular diagnostics, B cell biology, and vaccine development against various infectious diseases. She is a postdoctoral fellow of the Tufts/Cummings University, MA, USA and the University of Cape Town, South Africa. She served as a senior R&D manager at the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) in Geneva, Switzerland, supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. She is currently an Associate Professor at the Ghent University Belgium and Ghent University Global Campus in South Korea.

 

 

Abstract:

African trypanosomes maintain chronic infections by various evasion strategies. While antigenic variation of their Variant Specific Glycoprotein (VSG) surface coat is the most studied strategy linked to evading the host humoral response, African trypanosomes also induce impaired B-cell lymphopoiesis, destruction of the B-cell compartment and abrogation of memory responses.

At the level of both the immature transitional B-cell compartment and the marginal zone B-cells, infection-induced B-cell cell death in part is due to direct cell-cell contact as it can be inhibited by anti-tryponsome surface nanobodies or by physically separating trypanosomes from B-cells in a trans-well co-culture system. Here, induction of Capsase 3 activation is directly linked to the death of these cells during the onset of the first peak of infection. Infection associated apoptosis of follicular B cells correlates in turn to enhanced Fas death receptor surface expression and depends on the cucial role of IFN-γ in the early onset of cell destruction. Indeed, mice deficient for the cytokine or the receptor are protected from early-stage trypanosomosis-associated FoB cell depletion. Finally, also a role for NK cells and the granule pore-forming protein perforin has been shown, indicating that trypanosomes use a multitude of mechanisms to fight the host B-cell compartment. Together these mechanisms result in the ablation of the hosts’ capacity to mount an efficient antibody mediated defense, and prevent the buildup of immunological memory against parasite components. This successfully allows the parasite to re-use previously expressed VSG sequences throughout the infection without the risk of elimination by antibody-mediated destruction.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Masayuki Noguchi MD/PhD is finished his post doc training at NIH Bethesda to demonstrate common gamma chain as a genetic cause of XSCID.  He then took a faculty position at Harvard to start working on cell death and survival mechinery through the PI3K-AKT pathways. His recent research revealed AKT, a core intracellular survival regulator, interacts with various intracellur molecules including TCL1, TTC3, Phafin2, and Inversin, which execute its action for cell survivals, which underlies various human disease and infection.

 

Abstract:

Lysosome is known to degrade phagocytosed infectious particles through endocytic and autophagic pathways. Serine threonine kinase Akt (also known as PKB, protein kinase B), a core intracellular survival mediator, which underlies various human diseases, has been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of autophagy in mammalian cells. However, defined physiological function of Akt at the lysosome is currently unknown. We have reported that PtdIns(3)P-dependent lysosomal accumulation of Akt-Phafin2 complex is a critical step for autophagy induction. To characterize molecular function of activated Akt at the lysosome in the process of autophagy, we searched for the molecules which interact with Akt complex at the lysosome after induction of autophagy. By TOF/MS analysis of immune complexes of Akt at the lysosome after induction of autophagy, VRK (Vaccinia Related Protein Kinase) family kinases, a unique serine threonine family of kinases in the human kinome, were identified. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments showed that Akt interacted with VRK2 at the lysosomes. Immunofluorescent studies showed that VRK2 and phosphorylated Akt are accumulated at the lysosome after autophagy induction. VRK2 facilitates accumulation of phosphorylated Akt at the lysosome. Inhibition of VRK2 abrogated the lysosomal accumulation of phosphorylated Akt which coincides with inhibition of autophagy induction. VRK2-Akt is required for controlling lysosomal size, acidification due to insufficient biogenesis of the lysosome.

 

  • Malaria
Speaker
Biography:

Saber Gholizadeh, male, PhD in Medical Entomology and Vector Control, graduated from Medical Entomology department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2010. He worked on Transmission Blocking Vaccine in Malaria. He was research staff and Co-PhD student in Pasteur Institute of Iran (PII), Biotechnology Research Center (BRC), Malaria and Vector Research Group (MVRG) since 2000.  He is Associated Prof. in Urmia University of Medical Sciences now. He has published more than 16 papers in reputed journals and serving as an editorial board member of Journal of Bacteriology and Parasitology.

 

Abstract:

Anopheles stephensi liston1901 is considered as an important malaria vector in Iran, Asia, and recently in the Horn of Africa. Recently, Ansteobp1 intron I sequences have been introduced as a new molecular marker for identification of An. stephensi biological forms including, mysorensis, intermediate and type, using insectary colony specimens. In the current study, new marker ability has been evaluated with An. stephensi specimens collected from Iran and Afghanistan. Following DNA extraction and PCR amplification, sequence analysis and constructed phylogenetic tree revealed that type and intermediate forms are distributed in Iran. The specimens collected from Afghanistan identified as intermediate and mysorensis forms. This is the first report on the presence of An. stephensi biological forms in Afghanistan. Based on the results of Ansteobp1 intron I sequences, An. stephensi could be suggested as new Anopheles complex species including An. stephensi sibling A (type form), An. stephensi sibling B (intermediate form) and An. stephensi sibling C (mysorensis form). Precise species identification, especially in complex species will be helpful in the prevention of malaria resurgence and impress the malaria elimination program in Iran, mainly because of common fauna of Anopheles species and through border malaria and population movement within Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Voravuth Somsak has completed my PhD in Biochemistry from Chiang Mai University in 2011 with the malarial research expecially genetic engineering of malaria parasite and discovery of plant extracts to have antimalarial activity using malarial-mouse model as a tool. I am a Vice Dean and the Director of Research Department, School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. Publications related to malaria researches have been published in PubMed. Voravuth Somsak has expertise in malaria research in mouse model including development and discovery the medicinal plant extracts to exert antimalarial activity. Additionally, generation of transgenic Plasmodium berghei in mice as in vivo model for antimalarial drug screening has been done. So far, malaria researches including prophylactic, suppressive, and curative activities of medicinal plant extracts as well as toxicity in mice against malaria mouse model are working on.

Abstract:

Malaria is still one of the most deadly parasitic disease, having a high rate of incidence and mortality across the world. The spread and development of resistance against chemical insecticides is one of the major problems associated with malaria treatment and control. Hence, plant based formulations may serve as an alternative source towards development of new drugs for treatment of malaria. The present study was aimed to validate the medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium berghei infected mice as in vivo model. Crude extracts of the selected plants were prepared and tested for acute toxicity. The antimalarial including prophylacitc, chemosuppressive, and curative activities of these extracts were evaluated. When oral administered, no adverse and toxic effects were noted for these plant extracts ranging from 1,000-2,000 mg/kg doses signifying the safety in mice via oral route. Moreover, good chemosuppressive, moderate prophylacitc and curative activities against P. berghei infected mice of these extracts were observed. Additionally, protection body weight loss, hematological abnormalities, and prolonged mice mean survival time were also considered. The finding supports the traditional use of the plants for the treatment of malaria, and could serve as the potential source of new and novel antimalarial leads for the treatment and prevention of malaria.

  • STD And HIV infections
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Small sizes of viruses enable them infect cells that are inaccessible to medicines of large molecules. So, termination of viral infections requires synergy between immunity and medicines. The Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) depletes lymphocytes (general immunity). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) impair the liver (innate and adaptive immunity). Since lymphocytes are not life-sustaining HIV-infections do not cause immediate death. So, its infections are chronic. The liver regenerates.  So, HBV and HCV-infections are also chronic. Their chronic nature makes the diseases require prolonged treatment before cure. Prolonged medication with antiviral medicines of biochemical-effects causes toxicity (because of similarity between viral biochemistry and human-cells` biochemistry). Medicines of physical-effects (mopping/binding) need to reach every infected cell before they can terminate infections. Under state of immune deficiency, physical-effect medicines which do not reach all infected cells cannot terminate viral infections.  Those infected cells which are inaccessible to medicines are the cells called “sanctuary-cells” or “infections-reservoirs”. Molecules of Aluminum-magnesium silicate (AMS) are made of Nanoparticles that are only 0.96nm thick (< HIV, HBV, HCV). So, they reach all infected cells.  Edges of the Nanoparticles are positively charged and their surfaces, negatively charged. HIV and HCV are positively charged while HBV is negatively charged. So, AMS-Nanoparticles bind to HIV and HCV with their surfaces and to HBV with their edges. They bind to and destroy infected cells with their edges because abnormal (infected and cancer) cells are negatively charged .The “sanctuary cells” (infected cells) are also destroyed. So, “hidden infections” are unmasked. When all particles of a virus infecting   a patient`s organs/tissues are mopped out, he or she is cured. Also, silicates are immune stimulants. Added to these, AMS stabilizes antimicrobials. Stabilizing medicines prolongs their bioavailability. Prolonging bioavailability improves efficacy of medicines. With improved efficacy, lower doses of antimicrobials achieve desired effects and use of lower doses for treatments minimizes side effects of medicines. Minimizing side effects of medicines adds to enhancement of patients` immune responses. Synergy between Antiviral effects of AMS, improvement in efficacies of antimicrobials and enhanced immune responses lead to effective treatment of both the viral infections and secondary infections. Nigeria does not have AMS {AlMg3(SiO4)3}  but  there are  large deposits  of Aluminum silicate {Al4(SiO4)3} and Magnesium silicate  (Mg2SiO4) in the country . Therefore, Aluminum silicate and Magnesium silicate were reacted to get the Medicinal synthetic Aluminum-magnesium silicate {MSAMS: Al(SiO4)3 + 3Mg2SiO4 → 2AlMg(SiO4)3}.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Congolese doctor with more than 12 years of experience in public health, completed a degree in Internal Medicine from the University of Lubumbashi and PhD student. Provincial trainer for 5 years in HIV / AIDS, primary health care, family planning and reproductive health. 12 years experiences as Manager (Health Zone Chief Medical Officer and Health Zone Supervisor) in the Lubumbashi Health Zone. 5 years experiences in program implementation in Katanga province.

Abstract:

Objective: Estimate the retention rate in 4 clinical centers of Lubumbashi.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted to determine HIV treatment outcomes among HIV patients registered in 4 health care facilities in the Lubumbashi Health Zone providing HIV / AIDS care from January 1st to June 30th, 2015. Parmeters studied included variable socio-demographics (sex, age, marital status), clinical and immunological characteristics (WHO stage, CD4 at the start of treatment), comorbidity with HIV / AIDS, treatment outcomes.

Results: 167 patients were registered, of whom two-thirds are female and the most affected age group is between 35 and 44 years old. Two-thirds of these patients had a CD4 count <350 and a retention rate of 57.8% was observed.

 

  • Pharmacology and Infectious Diseases

Session Introduction

K. M. Yacob

Marma Health Centre
India

Title: Our body acts against facts of physics in fever
Speaker
Biography:

A practicing physician in the field of healthcare in the state of Kerala in India for the last 29 years and very much interested in basic research. My interest is spread across the fever , inflammation and  back pain,. I am a writer. I already printed and published nine books in these subjects. I wrote hundreds of articles in various magazines.

I presented 9 research papers in Indian Science Congress 2008 to 2017.And 2 papers selected for the coming 2018 Indian science congress. I presented 2 papers in kerala science congress2014and 2017.

After scientific studies for a long time, we have developed a theory, Which proves the temperature of fever is to increase blood circulation. we have developed 8000 affirmative cross checking questions. It  can explain all queries related with fever and  it considers the messages of the  body and the facts of physics

 

Abstract:

According to the facts of physics, if temperature increases, thermal expansion of an object is positive it will expand and with decrease of temperature it will shrink. Pressure will increase due to increase of temperature.

On the contrary, during fever we can see blood vessels and skin are shrunk, pressure decreases, body shivers,   sleep increases, motion decreases, inflammation increases,   body pain increases, blood circulation decreases, dislike cold substances etc...

In fever, the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons decreases, and the firing rate of

Cold sensitive neurons increases.

At the same time if we apply hotness from outside by thermal bag or if we drink hot water, our body acts according to the Facts of Physics- increase of temperature  pressure will also increase,  expands blood vessels and skin, body sweats, motion will increase ,  inflammation will decrease , body pain will decrease, blood circulation will increase,  like cold substances etc..

During fever, why our body acts against Facts of Physics? when disease increases, pressure and temperature will decrease. Blood circulation will decrease due to decrease of pressure. If the essential temperature of the  body is going out, essential temperature and  pressure will further decrease. This will further endanger the life or action of organ.

when  disease  increase, it is the sensible and discreet action of brain  that tends to act against facts of physics  to sustain life or protect organ .There is no  way other than this for a sensible and discreet  brain to protect the  life or organ.                       

We will get a clear answer if we find out the purpose of fever,  sensible and discreet action of brain . No medical books clarify this1

During fever, if the temperature of fever is not a surplus temperature or if it is not suppose to be eliminated from the body, the shrinking of skin and blood vessels, shivering of body, dislike towards cold substances etc are a protective covering of the body to increase blood circulation to important organs of the body it is against the facts of physics.

 

  • Veterinary Infectious Diseases
  • Antimicrobials/ Antibiotics/ Antibacterial
  • Vaccines and Vaccination
  • Infectious Diseases Prevention, Control and Cure

Session Introduction

Vijay Kumar

Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, India

Title: Experiencing and comparing the efficacy of SP-IRS versus DDT-IRS for controlling VL vector at Bihar
Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Vijay Kumar had completed his PhD at the age of 32 years from Patna University and successfully dedicated his excellent 30 years of his active scientific attitude with entomological proficiency especially in the field of VL vector bionomics. His proficient contribution to the field was so impressive and highly recognized by the Government of India that after his retirement from the post of Deputy Director, Scientist-E & Head of Department, Department of Vector Biology and Control at Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Agamkuan, Patna-07, Bihar he is serving as an ICMR consultant at RMRIMS (ICMR), Agamkuan, Patna-07, Bihar. 

Abstract:

In Bihar, phlebotomine sand flies were supposed to be highly susceptible to organochlorine insecticides but preferably and injudicious application of DDT for controlling VL vector had imposed the situation of vector resistance, where spraying with DDT has continued since 1976. In this regard, pyrethroids being synthetic analogues of pyrethrins, effectively deployed for controlling malaria vector population with satisfactory results. But, mass application and replacement of Alphacypermethrin 5% with DDT, for controlling VL vector population had never been reported in context to Indian scenario. With financial support and supervision of NVBDCP, study was implemented purposely to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of Alphacypermethrine 5% as SP-IRS and comparing those with DDT-IRS for controlling VL vector at Bihar regime. Under the sanctioned project in year 2016, villages Vaishali (high endemic district) and Samastipur (low endemic district) were selected and targeted for intervention with SP-IRS i.e., 5% Alphacypermethrin while the village of Patna served as positive control arm for the treatment with 50% w.p DDT. Following to the IRS intervention at selected sites, efficacy of Alphacypermethrin was evaluated and compared with those of DDT for their residual effect using the WHO cone bioassay and monthly sand fly collection.

 

Robert Pintaric

University Medical Centre Maribor,Solvenia

Title: Then years of use steriplant®N in medicine and public health
Speaker
Biography:

Robert Pintarič is a Assistant on Faculty of Health science, Maribor Slovenia Research Assistant in University Medical Centre Maribor. Graduated engineer of radiology 1997-2000 Faculty of Health, University of Ljubljana Slovenia. Specialist of information science within health care and health nursing 2005-2006 Faculty of Health Science Maribor, University of Maribor Slovenia. Master of Science in radiology and tehnology 2013-2014 Faculty of Health, University of Ljubljana Slovenia. PhD student of Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School University of Ljubljana and PhD student Faculty of Psihology department of Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience University of Maribor. Works at University Medical Center Maribor Department of Radiology, speciality magnetic resonance diagnostics 3.0 T, seventeen years of experiences of angiography, intervention radiology and cardiology.

 

Abstract:

Represented work is focused on the use of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EO water) Steriplant®N in medicine and Public Health.  Use of EO water in the environment is a complex situation. In our then years work is distributed an application of EO water in medicine and used on the and impact on pathogenic microorganisms and materials.  It revises the different types of EO water, its advantages and disadvantages, types of generation devices, the microbial inactivation mechanism, and factors affecting its efficacy.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Huang Wei Ling, born in Taiwan, raised in Brazil since the age of one, graduated in medicine in Brazil, specialist in infectious and parasitic diseases, a General Practitioner and Parenteral and Enteral Medical Nutrition Therapist. Once in charge of the Hospital Infection Control Service of the City of Franca’s General Hospital, she was responsible for the control of all prescribed antimicrobial medication, and received and award for the best paper presented at the Brazilian Hospital Infection Control Congess in 1998. Since 1997, she has been presenting her work worldwide, concerning the treatment of various diseases, using techniques based on several medical traditions around the world.
 

Abstract:

Statement of the problem: Few publications provide sound scientific data used to determine which components are essential for Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) programs in terms of effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection. However there remains a major gap in relation to the availability of international best practice principles for core components of IPC programs. The purpose of this study was to show why patients still catch hospital infections despite IPC programs. A better understanding of a variety of theories is needed that could explain the physiopathology of diverse diseases described in the medical past history, which are usually disregarded clinically today. The methodology used was a review of these theories such as those presented by Hippocrates (“Natural forces within us are the true healers of disease.”), as well as others from oriental medicine, which explain that diseases originate from three factors: external (exposure to cold, heat, humidity, wind and dryness), internal (emotional) and dietary. Findings: Having a broader view of the patient as a whole (Yin, Yang, Qi, Blood energy and Heat retention), we can understand better the formation of hospital infection which is a systemic energy reaction of our body undergoing normal hospital treatment. Conclusion: To understand better why a patient is still catching hospital infections, despite these IPC programs, we need to broaden our view observing all emotional, environmental and dietary factors, as well as studying his energy situation at the moment of admittance identifying his risk of hospital infection.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Prof. Magez completed his PhD in 1997 at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) in 1997. After several years of post-doctoral research at the VUB, the University of Cape Town, South Africa and at UMASS, Amherst, USA he returned to the VUB to lead the research group of Structural Immunoparasirology. In 2010 Prof. Magez became a group leader at the Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and in 2015 he moved to the Ghent University Global Campus as a director of the Research Center for Biomedical Sciences, a post that he combines today with his position as Research Professor at the VUB.

 

Abstract:

Animal African trypanosomosis, is caused by parasites of the Trypanosoma genus, mainly T. vivax and T. congolense. Active case-finding and the identification of infected animals prior to initiation of drug treatment requires the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Recently, we describe the development of two heterologous sandwich assay formats (ELISA and LFA) for T. congolense detection using of Nanobodies (Nbs). The immunization of an alpaca with a secretome mix from two T. congolense strains resulted in the identification of a Nb pair (Nb44/Nb42) that specifically targets the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase. The Nb44/Nb42 ELISA and LFA can be employed to detect parasitaemia in plasma samples from experimentally infected mice and cattle and they can serve as ’test-of-cure’ tools. These findings present the development and evaluation of the first Nb-based antigen detection LFA to identify active T. congolense infections. In a next step, we are developing a similar diagnostic tool for the detection of T. evansi. This parasite has moved out of Africa and is present in large areas of Asia and South America and threatens livestock farming in the Southern regions of Europe. Hence the goal is to develop a lateral flow device that can accurately diagnose T. evansi trypanosomiasis and can in parallel be used as a test-of-cure when treatment has been applied to target animals. Taken that several reports have now indicated that T. evansi can also cause a direct threat to human health, tackling this trypanosome infection will become a serious necessity in the future.

 

 

Speaker
Biography:

Rosie D. Lyles, MD, MHA, MSc is the Director of Clinical Affairs at Medline Industries, Inc. She serves as the medical/clinical expert and primary medical science liaison for numerous healthcare businesses; supporting all scientific research as well as clinical and product intervention design and development. With over a decade of experience investigating hospital associated infections  (HAIs) with a particular focus on the epidemiology and prevention of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) such as C. difficile, MRSA, and CRE infections in acute care hospitals and long-term acute care hospitals as a physician-researcher at Cook County Health and Hospitals System. Dr. Lyles has directed numerous clinical studies and infection control bundled interventions for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Chicago Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Prevention Epicenter with numerous authored peer-reviewed journal articles related to infectious disease epidemiology.

 

Abstract:

Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Clostridium difficile and Candida auris are increasing in prevalence worldwide, resulting in infections that are extremely difficult and expensive to treat. Patients across the continuum of care may be faced with colonization with several MDROs. To avoid outbreaks across a region, which can occur in the absence of a coordinated approach; hospitals are looking for effective solutions to reduce transmission (via direct and indirect contact) and prevent hospital-acquired infections (HAIs).

 

  • Laboratory Diagnosis – Infectious Diseases:
  • Bone Infection