Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend Global Experts Meeting on Infectious Diseases Tokyo,Japan.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Joseph L. Mathew

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, India

Keynote: Diagnosis of tuberculosis in children: Challenges and Opportunities

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Conference Series Infectious Diseases Meet 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Joseph L. Mathew photo
Biography:

Joseph L. Mathew is Professor of Pediatric Pulmonology at the Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. He has expertise in three areas viz pediatric respiratory diseases, vaccination/immunization of public health importance, and evidence-based health-care decision-making.

During the past two decades, Dr. Mathew has contributed extensively to further the understanding of the management of childhood asthma, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis and pneumonia. He has led several research projects and published extensively in these areas. He has also contributed to evidence-based policy-making for several respiratory conditions as well as vaccination of public health importance in the context of developing countries. Dr. Mathew developed the KNOW ESSENTIALS tool for evidence-informed decision-making in resource-limited settings. He has over 200 peer-reviewed publications to his credit and delivered numerous presentations in national and international meetings. Dr. Mathew serves on several WHO Commitees, scientific committees of International societies and national Pediatrics committees.

Abstract:

Inhalational antibiotic therapy is an attractive option for specific respiratory conditions. An ideal agent should: reach the target site (lungs/ lower airways) efficiently without inducing cough or bronchospasm, penetrate infected secretions in the airway, not be absorbed systemically, be simple to administer, not foster antimicrobial resistance and be affordable. Although these requirements are not fulfilled by most antimicrobials, several antibiotics as well a few antiviral and antifungal agents have been tried in children.

Pharmacokinetics of inhaled antibiotics depends on the physico-chemical properties, formulation (in terms of respired particle size), delivery device, status of the airway (anatomy and physiology), and efficacy of airway clearance mechanisms. Although sputum concentrations of inhaled antibiotics have been traditionally measured, these are highly variable and often unreliable.

 

  • Viral Infectious Diseases
Speaker
Biography:

Professor Tianhua Huang has been engaged in vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) via germline and its mechanism for more than 20 years.He has published more than 200 research articles. For his distinguished achievement, he received 4 academic awards issued by the National Health and Family Planning Commission and Provincial Government, China. In 2006 he won the second place of the 7th ROYAN International Research Award in Tehran Iran.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genes are able to integrate into sperm genome and can transcribe viral mRNA in spermatozoa. Sperm nucleus contains diverse RNA populations. We explored whether HBV genes could be transmitted vertically via patients’ spermatozoa and aimed to screen and identify host microRNAs regulating HBV gene expression in spermatozoa and sperm-derived embryos. Methodology & findings: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, positive signals for HBV DNA were detected in both nuclei of 2-cell embryos derived from patients’ spermatozoa but not in control embryos. There was a significant difference in the percentage of embryos with positive signals between the test and control groups. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), positive bands for HBV S and X genes were observed only in the test group but not in controls. Using immunofluorescence assays, clear HBV surface antigen signals were detected in the cytoplasm of embryos derived from patients’ spermatozoa but not in those derived from donor spermatozoa. Using microarrays, 336 miRs were found to be differentially expressed. After validation using real-time quantitative RT–PCR (RT-qPCR), four miRs were selected as targets. Using RT–qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, when patients’ spermatozoa were treated with mimics or inhibitors specific for hsa-miR-19a-3p and hsa-miR-29c-3p, the S gene transcription in spermatozoa and translation in sperm-derived embryos was downregulated or upregulated. There were significant differences in transcriptional and translational levels of the S gene between the test and control groups.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Tsyrlov has been serving as president/CSO of XENOTOX Inc, USA, since 2005. He had completed his MD (1970), PhD in Biochemistry (1973) and DSci in Molecular Toxicology (1983). He has been working as Group leader, Head of the laboratory, Department chair at Russian Academy of Science.  In the United States, served as a Senior Scientist at NCI, NIH, and Professor at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Incepted and developed the Xenobiotical Virology as an interdisciplinary biomedical field. He is the author of 4 monographs and 250+ peer reviewed publications.

Abstract:

Human common viruses are suggested target genes of host cell dioxin receptor transcriptional (AhR-Arnt) complex initially proven to upregulate mammalian genes containing dioxin-responsive elements (DRE). The concept of Xenobiotical Virology emerged from our discovery of transactivation of HIV-1 and HBV by the most potent xenobiotic, dioxin, which bioaccumulates and has estimation half-life in humans of up to 10 yr. Noteworthy, transactivation of CMV was demonstrated with 0.1-0.3 ppt dioxin, lower than its current background level in general population (~3.0 ppt). In this study, a computational search for DRE in HSV-1 genes was performed by SITECON, a tool recognizing transcriptional factor binding sites. Detection of HSV-1 titres and viral DNA in dioxin-treated target cells were determined by plaque assay and hybridization/PCR, respectively. Clinical and epidemiological links were analysed. Eventually, within five HSV-1 genes, including critical immediate-early (IE) ones, SITECON detected 7 to 8 potentially active DREs in the regulatory regions. Adjoining  DRE numbers for HSV-1 and CMV makes HSV-1 the most susceptible candidate virus to be augmented with body burden dioxin. The latter was proven by multi-fold elevation caused by 1.0 ppt dioxin of HSV-1 titers and viral DNA contents in dioxin-treated murine Apoe(-/-) astrocytes, monkey primary astrocytes and human astrocytoma U-87MG cells. Astrocyte models were chosen, as HSV-1 is linked to Alzheimer disease, where earlier amyloid plaques and their development intimately linked to activated astrocytes. It is postulated that a chance for latent HSV-1 to be activated by bodily dioxin is determined by the extent of AhR expression, which varied 15-20 times from person to person.

  • Tropical Infectious Diseases
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The prevalence of two gastrointestinal parasites the Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia parasites and their impact on some blood parameters i.e. packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb%) and total protein (TP) of a total 780 patients (children and adults) admitted to Samarra General Hospital was assessed. Samples of fresh feces collected in normal physiological saline and examined using Olympic microscopes. The frequency of the parasite E. histolytica was 12.8% (46.3% male and 53.6% female). The highest frequency of infection of E. histolytica (13.8%) was found at age group (1-5 years old) followed by <1 year old children while the lowest (7.4%) was at ages (>41 years old). The highest rate of infection (33.9%) was found in September and the lowest (2.2%) in January. Similarly, the general infection frequency of the parasite G. lamblia was 3.9% with the highest rate at ages 1-20 years old and the lowest rate was 7.3% for >50 years old. The monthly, highest rate of infection (5.2%) was in August and least (2.2%) in January (2.2%). The frequency of total protein (TPD) in the blood relevant to the presence of parasite E. histolytica and G. lamblia was 4.6% and 1%, respectively. It is concluded that the above two parasites are the most common gastrointestinal parasite in Iraq which their pathogenesis is likely to There has been irrelevant escalate during the summer seasons and at low hygienic services environment. to neither anemia nor to total protein deficiency. It is recommended that Ministry of Health in Iraq should not share the global idea of defining the giardiasis as a neglected disease.
 

Speaker
Biography:

Anat is an associate professor at Tel Aviv University, Israel. She received her Ph.D. from the Weizmann Institute of science in Israel, in 2003. She carried out postdoctoral research at University of California Berkeley, USA, working on Listeria monocytogenes and its interaction with the mammalian innate immune system. She joined the Tel Aviv university at 2008, and research in her laboratory focuses on understanding the impact of host–pathogen and host-pathogen-phage interactions on L. monocytogenes virulence. Anat published 24 papers in highly reputed journals and she is curently serving as the president of the Israeli society of microbiology.
 

 

Abstract:

The human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes harbors a prophage within its genome, which is known to reproduce by both lytic and lysogenic cycles. We have previously shown that this prophage adopted an unusual behavior when L. monocytogenes infect mammalian cells. During macrophage cells infection the prophage, which is inserted within comK gene, excises its genome leaving an intact comK gene that is necessary to facilitate bacterial phagosomal escape. Prophage excision occurs preferentially within phagosomes, yet, unlike classic prophage induction, progeny virions are not produced and bacterial lysis does not occur. These observations insinuate a unique adaptation of the prophage to the intracellular life style of its host, demonstrating a mechanism by which the prophage turns itself into a genetic switch to support the virulence of its host. We are currently investigating the give-and-take interactions of L. monocytogenes with its prophage during mammalian cell infection, deciphering the molecular mechanisms that control its intracellular excision and maintenance. A search for phage genes that are specifically induced during macrophage cells infection and not during lysogenic of lytic conditions pointed out several genes and non-coding RNAs as regulators of the phage intracellular behavior. New data will be presented.

 

  • Causes and Symptoms of Infectious Diseases
Biography:

Abstract:

Counseling in HIV and AIDS has become a core element in a holistic model of health care, in which psychological issues are recognized as integral to patient management. HIV and AIDS counseling has two general aims: (1) the prevention of HIV transmission and (2) the support of those affected directly and indirectly by HIV/AIDS and counseling can both minimize morbidity and reduce its occurrence. People who are infected with HIV have a greater risk of developing depression. Counseling helps you deal with the emotional aspects of the disease. Grief counseling can help you deal with end-of-life issues, if needed. The choice of counseling is based on individual needs, background, and symptoms. Sessions may be individual or as part of a group. There are several types of counseling: Interpersonal therapy focuses on current relationships; Cognitive-behavioral therapy identifies irrational or faulty thinking and helps to change problem behaviors; Psychodynamic therapy focuses on unresolved childhood and teenage experiences and their impact on your current thoughts and feelings. Now days there is a emerging therapeutic technique called “Mindfullness’ which has significant efficacy in reducing the burden and stress for the illness and eventually minimize the morbidity. The effectiveness of counseling varies. Some people respond very well. Others find minimal relief. Studies suggest that counseling can effectively treat people who have HIV and who also have problems with depression.

 

  • Problems in infectious disease practice
Speaker
Biography:

Valeria Vanegas has completed her undergraduate degree in Microbiology at University of los Andes in Colombia, and now she is about to complete a Magister of Biological Sciences. She makes part of the antimicrobial peptides of the Genetic Human Laboratory  group within her university. With previous experience in a variety of fields in microbiology, focused on health-social projects. Now she is a teacher/tutor  for undergraduate students in the courses of biochemistry and food microbiology.

 

Abstract:

The lack of an effective treatment and preventive measures against Malaria, represent a great persisting risk for the populations in endemic areas. Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to genus the Plasmodium. More than 100 species of Plasmodium can infect different animal species, but P.falciparum has been cataloged as the most dangerous Malaria, due to the number of cases and severe symptomatology that produces in humans.

Particularly in Colombia, Malaria represents a serious public health problem. Despite the current progress in the search for new mechanisms to treat Malaria, it remains an ongoing globally challenge, mainly due to the increasing cases of resistance to current antimalarial drugs.

In this context, we propose Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) isolated from different amphibian species, who have previously shown activity against different pathogens, as a possible alternative for the treatment of  Malaria. In silico results and the hemolytic activity of the AMPs were analyzed. Results clearly demonstrate that these peptides could have an activity against Plasmodium. Overall, the data indicate the potential advantages of this strategy for the development of selective peptides as research tools and eventually as antimalarial agents.

 

Xavier Fernàndez Busquets

The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology
Spain

Title: Turning against Plasmodium its own Survival Strategies
Speaker
Biography:

Xavier Fernández-Busquets started his undergraduate research career as a trainee student at the CIBA-GEIGY Zentrale Forschungslaboratorien in Basel, Switzerland. He graduated in Biochemistry at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, where he also obtained his PhD in the field of Molecular Biology. He held several postdoctoral positions, among which those at the Friedrich Miescher Institut (Novartis AG, Basel) and at the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory (Massachusetts, US). He became in 2006 Senior Researcher at the Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC) and since 2010 he is Head of the Nanomalaria Joint Unit (IBEC/Barcelona Institute for Global Health, ISGlobal).

 

Abstract:

The fragile malaria parasite, Plasmodium spp., through millions of years of coevolution with its natural hosts, has developed exquisitely sophisticated strategies to survive hostile environments in the blood and in mosquito tissues. Some of its tricks are, among others, (i) using as human host cell erythrocytes, which do not emit any alarm signal when they are parasitized by the pathogen; (ii) adhering to vascular endothelia to remove itself from the circulation thus avoiding spleen clearance; and (iii) escaping to a different host (the insect) when threatened in the human. We will discuss how we might profit from these evolutionary adaptations and turn them against the parasite, e.g. by (i) harnessing erythrocytes as antimalarial drug carriers, (ii) employing as targeting elements of drug-loaded nanovectors certain cell surface ligands used by Plasmodium for its sequestration in capillaries, or (iii) drugging parasite stages in the mosquito vector and thus avoiding lengthy and expensive clinical assays.

 

  • Infectious Diseases

Session Introduction

Lydia Nabil Fouad Melek

Alexandria University, Egypt

Title: The unique features of oral and maxillofacial infections
Speaker
Biography:

Dr Lydia N. Melek has completed her PhD from Alexandria University, Egypt and works as a faculty member of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt. She is a member of the International Association of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgeons (IAOMS), and a reviewer in the Peer Review Board of Alexandria Dental Journal. She is also a holder of the American National Dental Board, and a visiting research fellow at King’s College London, UK. She has multiple published papers in addition to supervision of several master theses at Alexandria University.

 

Abstract:

Oral and Maxillofacial infections often jeopardize patients’ lives. Most of the orofacial infections are odontogenic in origin, with endogenous bacteria gaining access to deeper tissues. Early infection is often initiated by high-virulence aerobic organisms (commonly streptococci) which cause cellulitis, followed by mixed aerobic and anaerobic infections. As the infection becomes more chronic, the anaerobic bacteria predominate and eventually the infection becomes exclusively anaerobic.

Regional intracranial spread of infection to the cavernous sinus, and also to the mediastinum is likely for those who are immunocompromised and left untreated. This may lead to lethal complications.

In this presentation, the unique pathophysiological features of maxillofacial infections will be reviewed, and therapeutic procedures will be discussed. In addition, a hint will be given about Ludwig’s angina, necrotizing fasciitis, and osteomyelitis of the jaws

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the HIV carries status of commercial blood donors visiting university of Benin  Teaching Hospital Benin City, Nigeria.

A total of 3515, prospective commercial blood donors attending UBTH were screened for Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) using cap illus HIV- 1/HIV-2 kits and were confirmed by immune comb HIV-1 /HIV-2 Bispot. Reagents were used according to manufacture’s instructions.  

 

Speaker
Biography:

Leila Azimi. I am research assistance professor in Pediatric Infections Research Center, Research Institute for Children Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. I am 35 years old. My research filed is antibiotic resistance and also molecular epidemiology. Our research group are doing national project about global threating bacteria according to priority of WHO. I will report the results of this study in your scientific congress.  

 

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health problem.  Antibiotic resistance can increase rate of mortality and morbidity especially in immunosuppress patients like hospitalized one. Antibiotic-resistant infections add considerable costs to the nation’s already overburdened health care system. Estimates regarding the medical cost per patient with an antibiotic-resistant infection range from $18,588 to $29,069 in 2015. The total economic burden placed on the U.S. economy by antibiotic-resistant infections has been estimated to be as high as $20 billion in health care costs. It can be considerable that making and introducing new antibiotics are very low because there is no economic justification because of early appearance of resistance. The most critical group of all includes multidrug resistant bacteria that pose a particular threat in hospitals, nursing homes, and among patients whose care requires devices such as ventilators and blood catheters. They include Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and various Enterobacteriaceae (including Klebsiella, E. coli, Serratia, and Proteus). They can cause severe and often deadly infections such as bloodstream infections and pneumonia.

Speaker
Biography:

Fatemeh Fallah. I am professor of  Medical Microbiology in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranMy research filed is medical bacteriology and also I am working on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our research group are doing national project about global threating bacteria according to priority of WHO. I will report the results of this study in your scientific congress.  

 

Abstract:

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the important cause of nosocomial infection in health care systems. A. baumannii has been shown to acquire antibiotic resistance elements quickly. Recently, this Gram-negative bacilli has shown resistance to the most of available antibiotics followed by emergence of multiple (MDR) and extensive drug resistance (XDR) strains. This has partly been due to extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics especially in burned patients. Aminoglycoside used with beta- lactam antibiotics commonly. So, resistance to aminoglycoside can lead to appearance MDR strains of A. baumannii.

MDR strains of A. baumannii can make serious problem and increase mortality and morbidity especially in immunosuppress patients like hospitalized one.

  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases/ Childhood Infectious Diseases
Speaker
Biography:

Segundo Mesa Castillo. As Specialist in Neurology, he worked for 10 years in the Institute of Neurology of Havana, Cuba.  He has worked in Electron Microscopic Studies on Schizophrenia for 32 years. He was awarded with the International Price of the Stanley Foundation Award Program and for the Professional Committee to work as a fellowship position in the Laboratory of the Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke under Dr. Joseph Gibbs for a period of 6 months, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, Washington D.C. USA, June 5, 1990. At present he is member of the Scientific Board of the Psychiatric Hospital of Havana and give lectures to residents in psychiatry.

 

Abstract:

There is increasing evidences that favor the prenatal beginning of schizophrenia. These evidences point toward intra-uterine environmental factors that act specifically during the second pregnancy trimester producing a direct damage of the brain of the fetus. The current available technology doesn't allow observing what is happening at cellular level since the human brain is not exposed  to a direct analysis in that stage of the life in subjects at high risk of developing schizophrenia. Methods. In 1977 we began a direct electron microscopic research of the brain of fetuses at high risk from schizophrenic mothers in order to finding differences at cellular level in relation to controls. Results. In these studies we have observed within the nuclei of neurons the presence of complete and incomplete viral particles that reacted in positive form with antibodies to herpes simplex hominis type I [HSV1] virus, and mitochondria alterations. Conclusion. The importance of these findings can have practical applications in the prevention of the illness keeping in mind its direct relation to the aetiology and physiopathology of schizophrenia. A study of amniotic fluid cells in women at risk of having a schizophrenic offspring is considered. Of being observed the same alterations that those observed previously in the cells of the brain of the studied foetuses, it would intend to these women in risk of having a schizophrenia descendant, previous information of the results, the voluntary medical interruption of the pregnancy or an early anti HSV1 viral treatment as preventive measure of the later development of the illness.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

New strategies to develop the efficacy of drugs are required to treat the emerging infectious diseases and microbial resistance. A new effective strategy is to design drugs combined with metal nanoparticles to overcome infections of multidrug-resistant microbes. In this study, three different forms of silver nanoparticles (S1-S3) were prepared. The three forms were investigated against coxackieviruses and 5 fungal strains (against Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Geotricum candidum, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes). For antibacterial and anticancer evaluation, S2 was used. All forms showed antiviral activities against virus replication with TI ranged from 0.4 to 30 and reduction in virus titers ranged from 0 to 4 log10 TCID50, where S3 showed the maximum antiviral effect followed by S1 and S2. On the other hand, Ag-NPs S2 exhibited antifungal activities against 5 fungus, mostly against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. No antifungal activities were observed from S1 and S3 forms. Ag-NP S2 showed antibacterial effects against gram negative Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, and Enterobacter cloacae) and positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans). In contrast, no activity was observed from Ag-NP S2 against some negative bacteria (Proteus mirabilis and Serratia plymuthica) and positive bacteria (Micrococcus boride, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and MRSA). Furthermore Ag-NPs displayed a significant cytotoxic potential in cancerous Hep-G2 and A549 cell lines. These findings indicate that Ag-NPs can be utilized as antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

 

  • Bacterial Infectious Diseases

Session Introduction

Shahnaz Armin

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Title: Carbapenem resistant mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; A report from Iran
Speaker
Biography:

Shahnaz Armin. I am sub specialist of pediatric infectious diseases in Pediatric Infections Research Center, Research Institute for Children Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. My research filed is medical microbiology and also I antibiotic resistance. Our research group are doing national project about global threating bacteria according to priority of WHO. I will report the results of this study in your scientific congress.   

Abstract:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of most prevalent and important Gram-negative bacteria in hospital can cause healthcare association infection in hospitals. Multi drug resistance (MDR) strains for these microorganisms can create drastically therapeutic challenges. During the last decade, first line antibiotic resistance using for the treatment of Gram-negative bacteria infections are increasing globally and in the recent decade resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics such as carbapenemas as a broad spectrum antibiotic has become increasingly prevalent. Resistance associated with production of carbapenemase and also, efflux pump are the important problem in the health care systems. Carbapenemase can hydrolyze all of beta- lactam antibiotics except monobactam in some case. Efflux pump can eject different classes of antibiotics to outside of bacteria and make resistance to them. So, these two important antibiotic resistance mechanisms can lead to appearance of multi drug resistance P. aeruginosa. This study report the rate of different important carbapenemase and also increase of gene expression in efflux pump in P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from some burden cities in Iran.  

Speaker
Biography:

Dr Ravindra P. Turankar, working as Research Scientist at Stanley Browne Laboratory The Leprosy Mission Trust India since1st March 2009.  Ten years of research experience in Molecular Biology, Microbiology and Immunology of Mycobacteria. He has published 20 research article in the reputed scientific journals and attended 29 national and International conferences. He was called as Group leader in symposium at Texas Medical Centre, Houston, USA

Abstract:

Diagnosis of leprosy is mainly based on the cardinal signs of the disease and the classification of paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) cases are based on the number of skin lesions and nerve involvement.  The present study was carried out to find out the important role played by the criterion of presence of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in slit skin smear (SSS) in classification of a case to MB. Further, in addition, presence of AFB and viable M. leprae were also determined in nasal swab smear (NSS) of all these cases to understand the role in transmission of infection. SSSs and NSSs were stained by Zeihl-Neelsen (Z-N) staining method for AFB. RNAs were extracted from 120 NS samples by using standard laboratory method. NSS and SSS were examined by direct microscopy and viability of M. leprae in NS samples were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Control NS samples from 50 occupational staffs from hospitals were used as controls PB cases from tertiary care hospitals of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) and Safdarjung (Government of India), Delhi classified by number of patches showed presence of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in 7.5% of NSS and 15% of SSS samples respectively. 

  • Fungal Infectious Diseases
Speaker
Biography:

Jia-Ching Shieh’s research interests are on genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors involved in a variety of human diseases, which are in concert with the subjects of his teaching. His main research focus presently addresses the mechanism underlying morphological plasticity of the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which is significant in both biology and medicine. His studies revealed the cross-talk between morphogenesis and stress and nutrient responses, and the role of epigenetic regulation in morphological plasticity and are under further investigation using classical approaches of genetics, molecular biology, cell biology and biochemistry incorporated with cutting edge technologies of functional genomics, proteomics, and epigenomics. To overcome C. albicans having a non-canonical codon usage and being a diploid without a complete sexual cycle, novel and non-genetic platforms have been established to reinforce revealing unique genes involved in morphogenesis and other virulence-related factors.

Abstract:

We have previously identified Candida albicans GPH1 (orf19.7021) as one of the C. albicans Cdc4 associated proteins by affinity purification. Significantly, we showed that constitutively expression CaGPH1 partially suppresses the filamentation where the expression of CaCDC4 is repressed. CaGPH1 gene is a putative glycogen phosphorylase as its Saccharomyces cerevisiaehomolog is known to participate in carbohydrate metabolism, particularly in glycogen catabolism that is associated with synthesis of b-glucan of the fungal cell wall. Hence, we establishedCaGPH1 null mutant strain and used to perform the in vitro virulence assays that are attributed to the affection of cell wall function. The in vitro virulence assay is centered on biofilm formation in which analytic procedures to evaluate the ability in germ tube formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, calcium-dependent flocculation, association with fibronectin, stress resistance, and XTT-based adhesion and biofilm formation are performed. Compared with the wild-type strain, the Cagph1D/Cagph1D mutant showed a decrease in the ability to form germ tube and the cell surface hydrophobicity but an increase in the capacity to associate with fibronectin. Ca2+-dependent flocculation did not appear to be different between the wild-type and the null mutant strains. In comparison with the wild-type strain, the Cagph1D/Cagph1D mutant exhibited an increase in adhesion, the early phase of biofilm formation, but showed the same ability to form a mature biofilm. No significant effect on Cagph1D/Cagph1D mutant in regarding to the conditions of cell wall damaging and TOR pathway-associated nutrient depletion. We conclude that the loss of CaGPH1 affects only some of the specific features related to cell wall structure, and the sum of these alterations are insufficient to reflect the ability of C. albicans to form a mature biofilm, hence the overall virulence.

  • Blood infectious Diseases

Session Introduction

Shi Ming-Der

Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital
Taiwan

Title: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas
Speaker
Biography:

Shi has completed his PhD from Kaohsiung Medical University. He is the director of pathology and laboratory medicine department, Kaohsiung Veterans Hospital Tainan Branch.

Abstract:

Introduction: Carbapenems are a last line of defense against many drug-resistant bacterial infections. Multi-drug-resistant bacteria have been common in Taiwan hospital such as ICUs, RCW and Chronic Ward. There is also prevalence in community care institutions. It is always threaten of patient life.

Material and Methods: We reviewed 371 chronic and acute patients more than 21 days of hospitalization. The specimen sources were sputum, urine, wounds and body fluids. The identification and susceptibility test used BD Phoenix TM 100 Automatic Microbiology System.

Results: We from 285 patients and 472 samples and 441 samples (93.3%) were Pan-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii was isolated, and from  88.4% sputum, 6.3% urine, 4.6% wounds and 0.7% body fluids, respectively. And the others, we also from

86 patients and 356 specimens and 142 specimens (40%) were Pan-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated, and from 95.4% sputum and 4.6% urine samples.

Conclusions: For a long time, Carbapenem antibiotics still have been the treatment of the first choice for Acinetobacter Baumannii and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. And in the past, it has been successfully used to treat β-lactam antibiotic for Acinetobacter Baumannii and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, now the effect of the treatment of Carbapenem for A. Baumannii and P. Aeruginosa have also been greatly reduced in. And now, many CR-AB (Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii) and CR-PA (Carbapenem-resistant P. Aeruginosa) resistance has increased. We also find the vancomycin resistant enterococci has elevated in our hospital. Therefore, clinicians not yet confirmed patients infected with the bacterial species, if the patient condition permission, do not using antibiotics before the Medical laboratory scientist identification of bacteria and drug sensitivity test reports. So, the clinician’s has prudent choice of appropriate antibiotic treatment to prevent bacterial resistance.

 

  • Epidemiological Diseases

Session Introduction

Zarema Obradovic

University of Sarajevo
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Title: Infectious diseases surveillance - problems in in developing countries
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The control of infectious diseases in FB&H is regulated by the Law. According to this Law 84 diseases are reportable. Diagnostic of infectious diseases  for about 2.200.000 inhabitants is carried out in 40 laboratories.There are no adequate diagnostics for a large number of diseases and it is not possible to set causative diagnosis. Treatment of patients with infectious diseases is performed in 6 health centers with 274 hospital beds. Epidemiological surveillance is organized through 10 public health institutes (one in each canton). All the cases of infectious diseases are not reported because of different reason. One is no computerization of the health system yet. Some reports come to epidemiological services with delays which makes difficultis in implementation measures. Among reported cases dominant infectious diseases are those transmitted by air and transmitted by food and water. Because of the strengthening of the anti-vaccine movement, vaccine-preventable diseases also occur.

 

  • Global Markets on Infectious Diseases

Session Introduction

Stef Stienstra

Civil-Military-Interaction-Command Royal Dutch Armed Forces
Netherlands

Title: The threat of zoonotic diseases and Ebola Virus Disease specifically
Speaker
Biography:

Works internationally for several medical and biotech companies as scientific advisory board member and is also an active reserve-officer of the Royal Dutch Navy in his rank as Commander (OF4). For the Dutch Armed Forces he is CBRNe specialist with focus on (micro)biological and chemical threats and medical- and environmental functional specialist within the 1st CMI (Civil Military Interaction) Battalion of the Dutch Armed Forces. For Expertise France he is now managing an EU CBRN CoE public health project in West Africa. He is visiting professor at the University of Rome Tor Vergata giving lectures for the CBRN Master study. In his civilian position he is at this moment developing with MT-Derm in Berlin (Germany) a novel interdermal vaccination technology as well as a new therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis for which he has won a Canadian ‘Grand Challenge’ grant. With Hemanua in Dublin (Ireland) he has developed an innovative blood separation unit, which is also suitable to produce convalescent plasma for Ebola Virus Disease therapy. He has finished both his studies in Medicine and in Biochemistry in The Netherlands with a doctorate and has extensive practical experience in cell biology, immuno-haematology, infectious diseases, biodefense and transfusion medicine. His natural business acumen and negotiation competence helps to initiate new successful businesses, often generated from unexpected combinations of technologies.

 

Abstract:

Public health systems are not always prepared for outbreaks of infectious diseases. Although in the past several public health institutes, like the French ‘Institut Pasteur’ and the Dutch ‘Tropeninstituut‘, were prominent surveyors of infectious diseases, the investments in worldwide public health have decreased. Now more attention is given to curative healthcare compared to preventive healthcare. The recent Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa initiated a new wave of interest to invest in Worldwide Public Health to prevent outbreaks of highly contagious diseases.

Zoonotic diseases are threatening as the population does not have natural nor artificial (from vaccination) immune response to new diseases like in the Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in 2014. The new strain of the Ebola Virus in West Africa was slightly less lethal, compared to other Ebola Virus strains, but the threat of spreading was far bigger as it had a longer incubation time.

Most public health systems are not trained well enough to mitigate highly infectious and deadly disease outbreaks. NGO’s helping to fight the outbreak are often better trained in curative treatments and have less experience with biological (bioweapon) threats for which the military are trained for. The UNMEER mission was unique in this. It was a setting in which military and civilian actors cooperate in fighting a biological threat. Protection is essential for health workers. Smart systems have to be developed to prevent further spreading of the disease, but it is not only the biosafety, which has to be considered, but also the biosecurity, as misuse of extremely dangerous strains of microorganisms cannot be excluded.

Several zoonotic infectious diseases, like anthrax, smallpox and hemorrhagic fevers are listed as potential bioweapons. Therefor both biosafety and biosecurity have to be implemented in all measures to fight outbreaks of highly infectious diseases.